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题名: 天文学在古代中国社会文化中的作用
作者: 孙小淳
刊名: 中国科技史杂志
出版日期: 2009-03
卷号: 30, 期号:1, 页码:5-15
关键词: 中国古代天文学 ; 敬天崇拜 ; 历法 ; 政治 ; 占星术 ; 天人合一
学科分类: 科技史::天文学史 ; 科技研究理论::科学与社会
中文摘要: 从天人关系的角度探讨了中国古代天文学在社会文化中的作用。中国古代天文学从早期开始就与敬天的宗教崇拜密不可分。天文观测既是敬天的活动,也是"通天"的手段。历法对于农业社会来说无疑是十分重要的,因此"观象授时"成为帝王统治的首要政治任务。历法是"君权神授"的"天命"的象征。改革历法就意味着改变天命,是重大的宗教政治问题。从敬天和观天的宗教天文活动中产生了"法天"的思想。帝王只要按照历法规定的"月令"治理国家,社会就和谐有序。汉代的董仲舒提出"天人合一"的宗教神学思想,把天文现象当作灾异现象,具有警示人事的作用。以观天象而占国家大事吉凶的中国占星术因此在中国古代宗教政治中发挥了极其重要的作用。 
英文摘要: This article studies the role of astronomy in ancient Chinese society and culture from the perspective of the connection between heaven and man. From its very beginning, ancient Chinese astronomy was closely connected with the worship of heaven. Astronomical observation was both activity of heaven worshiping and means of connecting to heaven. In a largely agricultural society, the making of the calendar was the first priority on the ruler's political agenda. The astronomical calendar symbolized the “mandate of Heaven” for the ruler. Changing the calendar signified changing of the mandate of Heaven. Thus calendar reform was an important political and religious issue. Based on knowledge of the calendar, the Chinese had developed the cosmological idea that the ruler must follow the ways of heavens in order to maintain an orderly and harmonious society. Dong Zhongshu from the Han dynasty elaborated the theory of the correlation and interaction between Heaven and man. Ancient Chinese astrology was judicial astrology based on this theory : abnormal astronomical phenomena being considered as omens that were warnings to rulers in their governance of the state. Astrology thus played a very important role in politics and religion in ancient China.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 期刊论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihns.ac.cn/handle/311051/1236
Appears in Collections:科学技术史_中国古代科技史_期刊论文

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孙小淳.天文学在古代中国社会文化中的作用,中国科技史杂志,2009,30(1):5-15
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