The nomenclature of large numbers not only is a part of unification work of mathematical terminology, but also is connected with the unification work of weights and measures. There was no unified standard for the nomenclature of large numbers from Pre-Qin to Qing Dynasty, In Republican China, the problem of nomenclature of large numbers caused concerns from academic circles and the government, and was surrounded by controversy. A number of scholars and related departments, such as the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Industry, were involved. The focus of controversy was the use of number system of thousand in three points a section, or the use of number system of ten thousand in four points a section. As a miniature of collision and conflict between Chinese and western culture in Republican China, it reflects the different thinking for dealing with native and international culture habits in China＇s process of modernization.