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题名: 农业生物多样性与中国农业的可持续发展(上)
作者: 曾雄生
刊名: 鄱阳湖学刊
出版日期: 2011-09
期号: 5, 页码:54-66
关键词: 中国农业 ; 生物多样性 ; 可持续发展
学科分类: 科技史::农学史
中文摘要: 中国农业发展自古以来就一直面临着耕地不足、地力下降、劳动不足、天灾人祸等诸多挑战。通过"杂种",保持农业生物的多样性,是精耕细作等举措之外中国传统农业应对各种不利因素、发展生产所采取的重要措施之一。它不仅成功地扩大了农地面积,提高了土地利用率,维持了土地的永续利用,而且对于自然灾害的控制和劳动力的调节也助有一臂之力。虽然在历史进程中,也存在单一栽培的趋势,但并没有引发严重的问题。近代以后,特别是最近三四十年来,随着人口的快速增长和迅速发展的工业化和全球化,农业生物多样性在市场经济的作用之下,日益为单一栽培和规模经营所取代,其中一个突出的表现就是粮食在增产的同时出现了结构性的短缺。而单一栽培所导致的农民负担加重、土地退化、环境破坏等问题,使农业的基础变得更加脆弱。展望未来农业的发展,或许可以从历史上农业生物多样性中得到一些有益的启示,这就是以农业生物多样性来满足人口的需要,维护人类健康,应对自然灾害,提高资源的利用率,实行因土种植、因需种植,为农业的可持续发展奠定坚实的基础。为此,在保护传统生物资源的同时,我们要积极引进外来物种,丰富生物多样性。 
英文摘要: China's agriculture has met many great challenges such as shortage of arable land, soil fertility decline, labor shortage, and many other natural and man-made disasters since ancient times. Apart from intensive cultivation, polycuhure is one of the important ways to maintain agro-biodiversity and cope with various adverse factors to develop the agriculture in traditional China, which not only succeeded in expanding total area of farming land, improved land utilization and kept sustainable use of land, but it was also helpful for the control of natural disasters and regulation of the labor forces. Even if there had been some extent of a monoculture trend in history of China, it did not lead to serious problems. Only in the modem time, especially in the past three or four decades, with rapid population growth and rapid development of industrialization and globalization, polycuhure has been replaced increasingly by monocuhure under the pressure of the market economy. As a result, there is a structural shortage while the total output of grain production increases. The monocuhure has increased the burden on farmers, and deteriorated soil and damaged environment have threatened the people's health, and hence the foundation of today's agriculture has become more vulnerable. To look ahead to the future of agriculture, the history of agro-biodiversity may give us some useful inspirations. The agro-biodiversity can be used to meet the needs of the population, maintain the human health, deal with natural disasters, improve the utilization of natural resources, perform cultivations with accordance of soil nature and human demands, and lay a solid foundation for sustainable agriculture. To this end, it is necessary for us to protect agro-biological resources, and at the same time, we also need to actively introduce alien species to enrich biodiversity.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 期刊论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihns.ac.cn/handle/311051/1800
Appears in Collections:科学技术史_中国古代科技史_期刊论文

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曾雄生.农业生物多样性与中国农业的可持续发展(上) .鄱阳湖学刊,2011(5):54-66
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