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题名: 从大汶口符号文字和陶寺观象台探寻中国天文学起源的传说时代
作者: 徐凤先
刊名: 中国科技史杂志
出版日期: 2010-12
卷号: 31, 期号:4, 页码:373-383
关键词: 大汶口符号 ; 陶寺观象台 ; 天文学起源 ; 太昊 ; 少昊
学科分类: 科技史::天文学史
中文摘要: 中国古文献记载的最早的定季节的方法是观测正午日影和黄昏中星。陶寺观象台展示了观测日出方位定季节的古老传统的遗迹。从认知科学史的角度看,观测日出入方位确定季节一定早于观测正午日影和昏旦中星,只是这一段历史已经延伸到文献记载和中华文明的记忆范围之外。大汶口文化出土有由太阳、云气和山峰组成的象形文字,考古学上认为大汶口文化为太昊和少昊族文化。太昊和少昊属于古史的传说时代,在天文学发展史上,可能正是观测日出入方位定季节的时代。越是在早期天文学与文明的其他方面结合越紧密,大汶口文化出土的符号文字当是既代表日出形象又指"昊"字。从古文献中还能找到这一时期宇宙观的若干遗迹。 
英文摘要: The earliest methods for determining the seasons recorded in ancient Chinese classics are the observation of the sun's shadow at noon and the meridian stars at dusk.The Taosi observatory displays an ancient method of determining the seasons by observing the sun's rising azimuth.From the view of cognitional history of science,the period of observing the sun's rising and setting azimuth must be earlier than that of observing the sun's shadow at noon and meridian stars at dusk,but this earlier period precedes the existence of texts and the memory of Chinese civilization.A pictograph unearthed amongst artifacts from the Dawenkou Culture in Shandong Province consisting of the sun,cloud and peaks,has also been unearthed at the Yuchisi site in Anhui Province.Dawenkou Culture is believed to be the culture of the clans of Taihao and Shaohao in archaeological terms.Taihao and Shaohao belong to the legendary time in history,maybe exactly the time when the method of observing the sun's rising azimuth was adopted in deciding the seasons.In the early stage of civilization astronomy combined with other cultural aspects more tightly than in late stages,thus the pictograph may refer to the rising sun as well as to Taihao.A vague trace of the cosmology of this time may also be discerned in extant classics.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 期刊论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihns.ac.cn/handle/311051/1864
Appears in Collections:科学技术史_中国古代科技史_期刊论文

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徐凤先.从大汶口符号文字和陶寺观象台探寻中国天文学起源的传说时代.中国科技史杂志,2010,31(4):373-383
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