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题名: 中国古代遗址的天文考古调查报告——蒙辽黑鲁豫部分
作者: 孙小淳 ; 何驽 ; 徐凤先 ; 高江涛 ; 黎耕
刊名: 中国科技史杂志
出版日期: 2010-12
卷号: 31, 期号:4, 页码:384-406
关键词: 考古天文学 ; 地平历 ; 天象崇拜 ; 史前文化遗迹 ; 日出方位观测 ; 圭影测量
学科分类: 科技史::天文学史 ; 科技史研究::科技史料学
中文摘要: 对内蒙古、辽宁、黑龙江、山东、河南等地部分重要疑似具有天文观测与天象崇拜功能的考古遗址进了天文考古考察。遗址年代跨越5000年前的新石器时代中晚期到1700年前的魏晋时代。这是在中国境内第一次大范围的考古天文调查。首先提出对史前文明中心遗址的"天文环境"进行测量和探讨,包括考察遗址周围有无适合观测某些特定季节日出的山峰轮廓,考察遗址在建筑朝向或布局上有无特定的天文意义。夏家店下层文化城子山遗址的结构表明当时已经用天文方法正南北。其石板上的北斗星象,反映了北斗星崇拜的悠久传统。红山文化牛河梁遗址和东山嘴遗址发现的石块堆砌的圆丘,很可能具有宇宙图景的意义。东山嘴遗址地势高出,东面山廓明显,是理想的"地平历"观测系统。大汶口文化可能有春秋分日出天象崇拜,宗教图腾意义重大。大朱家村遗址的豆家岭,有可能就是大朱家村遗址的太阳观测祭祀台。山东龙山文化两城镇遗址和王湾三期文化(旧称河南龙山文化)王城岗遗址似乎都没有明显的"地平历"观测环境。我们的研究表明,陶寺文化兼有"地平历"和圭表测影系统。红山文化、大汶口文化早于陶寺文化,山东龙山文化晚期和王湾三期文化大致与陶寺文化同时,这意味着中国史前天文观测技术经历了从观测日出方位向圭表测影的演变。中国考古天文学研究,对于认识中国古代天文学的源流、中国远古文明的起源以及中国古代敬天崇拜的内涵,意义重大.
英文摘要: The field study carried out by our team is the first large scale archaeoastronomical survey of archaeological monuments across China.The first phase of our survey carried out from 16 August to 4 September 2009 covered several important sites in Inner-Mongolia,Liaoning,Heilongjiang,Shandong and Henan Provinces.The dates of the sites investigated range from Neolithic times,ca.5000 BP,to the Wei and Jin dynasties around 1700 BP.The survey focused on the "astronomical environment" of prehistoric sites.This included the investigation of the surrounding hills that might serve as a "horizontal calendar" based on the observation of sunrises and sunsets,and the study of astronomical alignments of the structure of the sites.We have achieved the following preliminary results.The layout of the Chengzishan site of the Xiajiadian Lower Stratum Culture(4000—3500 BP)indicates that astronomical methods had been used to determine the meridian.A stone table was discovered with stars of the Northern Dipper chiseled on it,indicating the long tradition of worshiping the Northern Dipper.The round mounds found at the sites of Niuheliang and Dongshanzui of the Hongshan Culture(6000—5000 BP)may have reflected cosmologies of ancient people of the remote past.The Dongshanzui site was built on a high terrace,with mountains to its east forming an ideal horizon for observing the sunrise to determine the seasons.The site served perhaps both astronomical and religious purposes.In the Dawenkou Culture(6300—4500 BP)people observed and worshiped the sun.The sunrise at mid-spring and mid-autumn was of particular religious significance.At Dazhujiacun site we discovered an artificial high ground called Doujialing that might have served as an altar for worshiping the sun.However,at the Longshan Culture(4350—3950 BP)sites of Liangchengzheng in Shandong Province and Wangchenggang in Henan Province,we did not see obvious surroundings for a "horizontal calendar".Our study of the Taosi Culture(4500—3900 BP)in Shanxi Province shows that both a "horizontal calendar" and gnomon shadow measurements were practiced.Considering the temporal sequence of these cultures,we suggest that early China might have experienced a shift in the method used for astronomical observations from the "horizontal calendar" to gnomon shadow measurement.Our discoveries demonstrate that archaeoastronomy,though still in its early stage in China,may throw great light on the origins of astronomy,worship of the Heavens,and of early Chinese civilization in the broader sense.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 期刊论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihns.ac.cn/handle/311051/1885
Appears in Collections:科学技术史_科技史料学_期刊论文

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Recommended Citation:
孙小淳.中国古代遗址的天文考古调查报告——蒙辽黑鲁豫部分.中国科技史杂志,2010,31(4):384-406
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