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题名: “杯吸”与“蛭吸”的中外比较研究
作者: 廖育群
刊名: 中国科技史杂志
出版日期: 2010-09
卷号: 31, 期号:3, 页码:257-272
关键词: 拔罐 ; 蛭吸 ; 角法 ; 医用蛭 ; 日本医蛭
学科分类: 科技史::医学史
中文摘要: "杯吸"(拔罐)与"蛭吸"是东西方许多国家都曾经或仍在使用的治疗手段,但其在东西方的流行程度却大不相同。就中国而言,由于前者在当今社会非常流行,因而被认为是自古以来便广泛使用的所谓"民间疗法";而后者则因早已不见使用而鲜为人知。就西方而言,其使用的情况却是后者远远超过前者。迄今,中国医学史家对于古往今来本国使用这两种疗法的实际状况的研究并不深入,且疏于对域外使用状况的关注;而西方的相关研究则缺乏对于中国乃至东方其他国家使用这两种疗法之历史的了解。因而当将东西方、不同国家使用这两种疗法的历史状况综合在一起进行考察与比较研究时,便会有许多新的发现。例如:尽管在中国医疗史上确实很早便有将"负压"作为技术手段的记载,但在不同的历史时期,其方法、目的、适用范围等诸多方面却有极大的不同———唐代突然开始使用邻国早已使用的"蛭吸"之法;制造"负压"的工具与方法在相当晚近的时候突然从"角"变为"罐"、从"水煮"变为直接用火加热等等。又如日本学者始终对"医蛭属"的拉丁学名与日文读音一致的现象有所关注,但却惑于其拉丁学名为林奈1758年所定而无法将研究深入下去,而一旦将相关的词汇依时间顺序加以排列,便会清楚地发现司空见惯的"定说"实际上并不准确,从而获得重新解释的可能。凡此种种,便是构建于精细的"史料考证"基础之上的"综合比较"能够赋予我们的新得,也是"杯吸"与"蛭吸"这一问题之研究所欲达成的目的。
英文摘要: The therapeutic techniques of cupping and leeching have been used in a number of countries,East and West,during ancient or modern times,but the contexts for their use were different.In China,because of its continued popularity,cupping is regarded as a folk medicine that has been widely used from antiquity to the present day,while leeching died out long ago and is now unknown.In the West,however,leeching is much better known than cupping.Research by Chinese medical historians about how cupping and leeching were used in the past in China has been inadequate so far,while they have not even touched on their use in foreign countries.Research by Western medical historians has also completely neglected the situation in East Asia.Thus,some new insights can be gained by investigating and comparing their use in these very different cultures.For example,though the use of the "vacuum technique" was recorded very early in Chinese medical literature,however its methods,purpose and applicability changed during subsequent periods.Leeching appeared suddenly in the Tang dynasty,while the tools to make the vacuum for cupping abruptly changed from horn to cup,and the method for heating up the tools shifted from using hot water to fire,etc.One more interesting case is why was the pronunciation of the word for the leech used for medicine in Japan very similar to the Latin? Though some Japanese scholars mentioned the question they have not come to any conclusions.This paper provides new explanations to these issues based on detailed textual research.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 期刊论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihns.ac.cn/handle/311051/1886
Appears in Collections:科学技术史_中国古代科技史_期刊论文

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廖育群.“杯吸”与“蛭吸”的中外比较研究.中国科技史杂志,2010,31(3):257-272
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