1897年德国强占胶州湾,次年迫使清政府签订《胶澳租界条约》,强租胶州湾并获得在山东修建铁路等权利。1899年德国14家银行机构和企业组成联合辛迪加,获得德国首相授予的铁路许可权并成立山东铁路公司。1899年胶济铁路动工,1904年全线建成通车。胶济铁路的部分殖民地背景有利于它获得德国政府支持,同时也使它必须协调对中国政府的关系,另外也决定了铁路建设资本和工程技术人员及铁路材料主要来自德国。 ; In 1897 Germany occupied Kiautschou （Jiaozhou） , and the next year forced the Qing government to sign the Kiautschou Leasehold Treaty, leased Kiautschou Bay and acquired the privileges of building railways, etc. In 1899, a syndicate of 14 German banks and enterprises was granted a railway concession by the Chinese Prime Minster and founded the Shantung Railway Company. The construction of the Shantung Railway was begun in 1899 and finished in 1904. The semicolonial background of the railway helped to gain support from the German government, and at the same time made it necessary to coordinate with the Chinese government. It also determined that the construction capital, engineering personnel and railway materials mainly came from Germany.