Western natural philosophy based on Aristotelian doctrines was largely introduced into China by Jesuits in late Ming and early Qing. It had a great impact on the Chinese literati since then. Jie Xuan＇s Xuanji Yishu is one of the best examples of such an impact. This paper discusses the composition and circulation of the book in correlated social and cultural contexts, and compares the differences among its various versions. Its composition and circulation reflect the social background and cultural needs of different periods, witnessing the transition of thoughts in the Qing dynasty from one perspective.