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明清之际中国天文学关于岁差理论之争议与解释
王广超
2009-01
Source Publication自然科学史研究
Volume28Issue:1Pages:63-76
Abstract关于岁差,古代中国和西方天文学有不同的解释。中国天文学分"天自为天,岁自为岁",认为是黄道沿赤道的西滑导致了冬至点的西退,从而致使"天周"与"岁周"不同。中国传统天文学中,岁差只是一个历法概念。而古代西方天文学则继承了古希腊传统,将岁差解释为"恒星东移"的结果。明清之际,西方传教士引入与中国传统岁差理论截然不同的"恒星东移"之论。当时恰逢"中西历争",为争夺钦天监控制权,奉教天文学家和保守士人之间曾发生激烈争斗,而由西方传入的"恒星东移"之论曾卷入这场争论当中。文章试图以"中西历争"为线索讨论当时不同背景中的士人或历算家关于此论的争议与解释。通过考察发现:"中西历争"之中,奉教天文学家藉此论宣扬西法之优越,保守士人则将其作为抨击奉教天文学家的主要着力点之一。而当时一些志在"会通中西"的历算学者对此却持一个较宽容的态度。在"西学中源"说这一背景之下,梅文鼎等又通过历算史重构的方式将"恒星东移"之论纳入到传统的"天自为天、岁自为岁"的框架之中。 
Other AbstractThis paper examines the controversy over the theory of precession during the late Ming and early Qing China. Ancient Chinese astronomy had a theory of precession different from Western astronomy. Early Chinese astronomers had noted the slight discrepancy, an "annual difference" (sui cha) , between the lengths of the tropical and sidereal years, that is between the time which elapsed from one winter solstice to the next and the time it took for the sun in its apparent annual circuit to return to a given position with respect to the fixed stars. They distinguished the ' celestial revolution' ( tian zhou ) from the "annual revolution" ( sui zhou ), arguing that " celestial heavens and the calendrical year are two different things ( tian zi wei tian, sui zi wei sui). " Western astronomers explain it by reference to a cosmology where celestial bodies are embedded in celestial spheres. Precession seen as a property of the motion of the whole cosmos, affects the positions of all fixed stars. The sphere of the fixed stars rotates on the axis of the ecliptic. During the period of late Ming and early Qing, the Western theory of precession was introduced into China by the Jesuits to explain "annual difference" (sui-cha). This led to a violent controversy over the theory of precession between the Jesuit astronomers and some conservative Chinese officials. Jesuit astronomers used the theory of precession to demonstrate the superiority of the "new method" ( Western astronomy), while some Chinese scholars used it to attack the Jesuits. At the same time, a number of Chinese astronomers who tried to bridge the differences between Western and Chinese astronomy took an open-mind- ed attitude towards the theory of precession. Mei Wending, trying to merge Western learning into Chinese system, re-interpreted the Chinese theory of sui eha in a way that would accommodate the Western theory of precession.
Keyword岁差 恒星东移 “西学中源”说
Subject Area天文学史
Language中文
Document Type期刊论文
Identifierhttp://ir.ihns.ac.cn/handle/311051/2051
Collection中国古代科技史
Recommended Citation
GB/T 7714
王广超. 明清之际中国天文学关于岁差理论之争议与解释[J]. 自然科学史研究,2009,28(1):63-76.
APA 王广超.(2009).明清之际中国天文学关于岁差理论之争议与解释.自然科学史研究,28(1),63-76.
MLA 王广超."明清之际中国天文学关于岁差理论之争议与解释".自然科学史研究 28.1(2009):63-76.
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