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题名: 圭表测影与帝国文化
作者: 黎耕 ; 孙小淳
刊名: 中国科技史杂志
出版日期: 2011-08
卷号: 32, 期号:s1, 页码:131-141
关键词: 圭表测影 ; 帝国文化 ; 陶寺地中 ; 千里差一寸历法
学科分类: 科技史::天文学史
中文摘要: 圭表测影不仅是中国古代天文中的基本测量方法,还具有重要的文化意义。圭表测影相较观测日出方位定节气的方法,可适用于更大范围的地域,促进了“地方性”文明向“世界性”文明的转变。陶寺时期同时具备两种测量方法,体现了圭表测影技术对早期国家形成的文化意义。圭表测影还是“惟王建国”测定方向和确定都城位置的重要手段,后者对应于天文学史上延续很久的“地中”概念,反应了国家政治中心的所在。为了国家统治分封疆土的需要,古人确立了“千里差一寸”的标准,这个错误的标准随着帝国版图的扩大,才最终被大范围的测量所推翻。自汉代以降,为满足制定历法这一国家重要职能的需要,圭表测影技术进入精致化发展阶段,并使得测量精度不断提高。
英文摘要: In ancient China, gnomon shadow measurement, as a basic technique for astronomy, was important not only astronomically, but also culturally. Compared to sunrise observation for the determining the seasons of the year, gnomon shadow measurement was valid for a much larger area. Therefore it indicates the transition of civilization from "local" to "universal". Archaeoastronomical studies show that both gnomon shadow measurement and sunrise observation were invented during the Taosi Culture period (2300-1900 B. C. ) , which means a certain form of "imperial culture" had come into existence. Gnomon shadow measurement became a technique for "empire-building". The rulers applied this technique to the determination of orientations and setting the boundaries of the country. The "center of the land", which symbolized the "center of power", was also determined by the gnomon. Changes in the shadow length indicated changes in the location. The Chinese established the law of "qian li ca yi curt", which means the shadow length would increase or decrease one cun for every thousand li the gnomon was moved to the north or to the south of the "center of the land". Based on this principle, the Chinese developed a feudal ritual that different sizes of the jade gnomons held by those who had been enfeoffed symbolized the different sizes of their fiefdoms. Since the 1 s, century B. C. , gnomon shadow measurement has played an important role in state-controlled calendar making activities.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 期刊论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihns.ac.cn/handle/311051/2468
Appears in Collections:科学技术史_中国古代科技史_期刊论文

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黎耕.圭表测影与帝国文化.中国科技史杂志,2011,32(s1):131-141
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