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题名:
17世纪下半叶英国科学研究方法的转变
作者: 罗兴波
刊名: 中国科技史杂志
出版日期: 2011-03
卷号: 32, 期号:1, 页码:49-60
关键词: 17世纪 ; 伦敦皇家学会 ; 新柏拉图主义 ; 研究方法
学科分类: 科技史
中文摘要: 第一次科学革命始自哥白尼,终于牛顿,并最终导致了近代科学的诞生。正因如此,17世纪的英国一直受到各国科学史研究者的关注。复兴于15世纪的新柏拉图主义,尽管于17世纪前期已经在欧洲大陆产生了重要影响,却对英国自然哲学研究者们影响甚小,他们依然按照培根式的经验主义哲学指导自己的研究工作。通过对成立于17世纪中叶的伦敦皇家学会进行考察,发现当时的英国自然哲学研究者群体经历了一个研究方法转变的过程:培根所倡导的实验哲学由于其自身存在缺陷无法满足实际的研究需要,于17世纪70至80年代受到了数学主义研究传统的冲击,正是在这个时期,英国自然哲学家们的研究方法发生了转变,引力问题的研究是使得这种转变最终完成的契机。
英文摘要: The history of science in Britain in the 17th century has attracted the attention of many researchers, for most of them believe that the first Scientific Revolution gave birth to modern science. Neo-Platonism, which revived in the 15th century in Europe, contributed to many achievements in natural philosophy by the 17th century, but had almost no impact on British researchers, who just followed the so-called "experimental philosophy" of Francis Bacon. Through analysis of the minutes of the Royal Society between 1660 and 1687, we have found that the research methods of British scientists changed from Bacon's method to the mathematical method, which was praised highly by the Neo-Platonists. In the 1670s, the Fellows of the Royal Society realized that Bacon's method was not the key to the universe, with the result that the mathematical method was introduced into their research. At the end of 1680s, many Fellows used this method very widely. The second half of the 17th century is the age of the transformation of the research methods of British science, the background of this transformation is the revival of Neo-Platonism, and the outcome is the establishment of the theory of gravity.
语种: 中文
内容类型: 期刊论文
URI标识: http://ir.ihns.ac.cn/handle/311051/701
Appears in Collections:科学技术史_世界科技史_期刊论文

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Recommended Citation:
罗兴波. 17世纪下半叶英国科学研究方法的转变[J]. 中国科技史杂志,2011-03-01,32(1):49-60.
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